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FEEM EVENTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE (1992-2015)


The organization of events is a fundamental activity for FEEM, since it allows the creation and maintenance of relationships with the scientific community at the national and international level. Events also generate important spillovers in terms of research opportunities that can subsequently yield outputs in the form of projects, publications and networks. FEEM organizes conferences and seminars for scholars, workshops and open lectures. Conferences are usually large scale events on the topics of FEEM’s research agenda, while workshops are typically used for the discussion of “work in progress” and brainstorming sessions. Seminars are primarily given by residential researchers and aimed at cross-fertilization between the different research areas and programmes. Seminars are also co-organized with Universities and other research centers, and are also open to visiting scholars and to the local research community. What follows represents FEEM’s events on climate change in the 1992-2015 period, grouped by six topics: ADAPTATION, FINANCE, GOVERNANCE, MITIGATION, NATURAL DISASTERS AND RDD & D.


ADAPTATION
indicates all the activities
which intend to cope with and
reduce impacts from climate
change
1

KEY ADAPTATION EVENTS (1992-1997)

- Water Pollution from Agricultural and Urban Diffuse Sources: its Nature, Extent and Control

27

KEY ADAPTATION EVENTS (1998-2003)

- The Impacts of Climate Change on the Mediterranean area: regional scenarios and vulnerability assessment

- Growth, Environmental policies and Sustainability

- 1st Workshop on Integrated Climate Models: An Interdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Impacts and Policies

53

KEY ADAPTATION EVENTS (2004-2009)

- Integrated Water Management of Transboundary Catchments: A Contribution from TRANSCAT

- 2nd International Conference on Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development Macro and Micro Economic Issues

- European Summer School in Resource and Environmental Economics: "Welfare Measurement and Cost Benefit Analysis in Dynamic General Equilibrium"

- 2006 European Summer School in Resources And Environmental Economics - CGE Models in Environmental and Resource Economics

- 1st FEEM Conference on the Economics of Sustainable Development

- Conference on Climate Change and Sustainable Development

- European Summer School in Resource and Environmental Economics Trade, Property Rights and Biodiversity

- OECD International Conference on Competitive Cities and Climate Change

- European Summer School in Resource and Environmental Economics "Space in Unified Models of Economy and Ecology"

- The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change - FEEM-OECD International Workshop

105

KEY ADAPTATION EVENTS (2010-2015)

- Conference on Diversity for Sustainable Development: Towards a New Research Agenda? - SUS.DIV

- International Workshop on "the Social Dimension of Adaptation to Climate Change"

- Conference on "Climate Impacts on Energy Systems: key Issues for Energy Sector Adaptation", in cooperation with eni Corporate University

- International workshop on "Energy Poverty and Access to Energy in Developing Countries"

- FEEM-Ca' Foscari University of Venice joint UNFCCC side event on "The cost of climate change adaptation: new findings, old gaps and policy implications"

- ICCG International Workshop on "The Climate Challenge in the Arctic. Environmental Impacts, New Opportunities and Future Policy Options"

- ICCG International Lecture by Saleemul Huq: "Adaptation Capability in Least Developed Countries (LDCs)"

- CMCC-ICCG Summer School on “Climate Change Impacts and Policy in the Mediterranean Basin”

- Final Conference on "Impact Quantification of Global Changes" of the Global IQ project (Impacts Quantification of global changes)

- International Workshop on "Energy Poverty and Energy Access: Global Challenges and Goals"

- ICCG International Lecture by Ferenc L. Toth, International Atomic Energy Agency: "Climate change: impacts and adaptation in the energy sector"

- ICCG International Lecture by Shonali Pachauri, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: "How does achieving a universal modern energy access goal affect the attainment of other SDGs?"

FINANCE
points to those activities
which deal with the financing
of mitigation and adaptation
measures
2

KEY FINANCE EVENTS (1992-1997)

- Subsidy-Tax Programs for Environmental Externalities and Polluter's Site Quality Standards

1

KEY FINANCE EVENTS (1998-2003)

- Global Energy Investment Challenges

3

KEY FINANCE EVENTS (2004-2009)

- Financial Crisis and Climate Policy. A Science-Policy Debate

21

KEY FINANCE EVENTS (2010-2015)

- International Workshop on "The Challenge of Financing Low-Carbon Growth "

- 14th annual conference on Global Economic Analysis “Governing Global Challenges: Climate Change, Trade, Finance and Development”

- International workshop on “Foreign Direct Investment and Climate Change: New Research Directions”

- COP 19 FEEM-Ca' Foscari Side Event: "Costs and Benefits of Adaptation to Climate Change and the Sustainability of Public Finance in the EU"

GOVERNANCE
concerns all the stream of
work dealing with
institutional arrangements
and agreements
16

KEY GOVERNANCE EVENTS (1992-1997)

- The International Dimension of Environmental Policy

- Trans Atlantic Public Economics Seminar: Conference on Market Failure and Public Policy

- IPCC '95 - 11th Plenary Session

- International Environmental Agreements on Climate Change

24

KEY GOVERNANCE EVENTS (1998-2003)

- Indicators of Sustainability: a Tool for Agenda 21 Venice

- Public Participation in Local Agenda 21 - A Review of Traditional and Innovative Approaches

- The International Dimension of Environmental Policy

- International Summer School on “Games Theory And The Environment”

- European Summer School on Environmental Economics Political Economy of The Environment

25

KEY GOVERNANCE EVENTS (2004-2009)

- 1st EPIGOV Thematic Conference. Better Integration: Mainstreaming Environmental Concerns in European Governance

- 2nd EPIGOV Thematic Conference Environmental Policy Integration at Local/Regional Levels; Environmental Policy Integration at National Level

- Thematic Conference on Environmental Policy Integration at global level; Environmental Policy Integration and multi-level governance

- Post-2012 International Policy Architecture for Global Climate Change

- EPIGOV - Environmental Policy Integration and Multilevel Governance Final Conference: Project Results and Policy Recommendations

- IPCC Scoping Meeting for the Fifth Assessment Report

- International Workshop on "Fairness and the Commons: Socio-economic Strategies and Resource Dynamics"

- International Workshop on Coalitions for Climate Cooperation. A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Post 2012 Climate Policy

73

KEY GOVERNANCE EVENTS (2010-2015)

- European Summer School on Climate Change Negotiations (EAERE-FEEM-VIU)

- International Workshop on "Institutions for Climate Governance"

- Climate After Copenhagen Launch Event of the International Center for Climate Governance

- EAERE-FEEM-VIU European Summer School "Climate Change Negotiations"

- Climate change: the grand challenge - Literary contest in Italian for unpublished short stories

- ICCG-Ca' Foscari Lecture by David Buckland, Cape Farewell, UK: "Climate is culture: where science meets art"

- ICCG Lecture by Bruno Latour, Sciences Po Paris, France: "What does it mean to bring the fate of the Earth into daily politics?"

- "ICCG Climate Think Tank Ranking" Ceremony at the EAERE Annual Conference

- ICCG Workshop on "Public-Private Partnerships: a focus on Energy Infrastructures and Sustainable Growth"

- L'International Center for Climate Governance premia le Buone Pratiche sul Clima

- Workshop on Assessment and Communication of the Social Science of Climate Change: Bridging Research and Policy

MITIGATION
concerns all the activities
related to the reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions,
including their costs
41

KEY MITIGATION EVENTS (1992-1997)

- International Workshop on Energy Taxation and CO2 Emissions

- Economic Growth and the Structure of Long-Term Development

- Pollution and Growth towards the Ecological Paradise

- L'ambiente dopo Rio (The Environment after Rio)

- International Workshop on Operations Research and Environmental Management

- Sustainable Growth and Uncertainty

- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III - Top-Down and Bottom-Up Models: What Can We Learn from Each?

- Human Capital and Mobility Programme-Designing Economic Policy for Management of Natural Resource and the Environment

- Environmental Taxation, Revenue Recycling and Unemployment

- Environment and Transport in Economic Modelling

- The Mediterranean Water Policies: The Control of Water Non Point Source Pollution

42

KEY MITIGATION EVENTS (1998-2003)

- 1st World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists Association of Environmental and Resource Economists

- Distributional and Behavioural Responses to Environmental Policy

- Policy Workshop on Integrating Climate Change Policies in the European Environment. Costs and Opportunities

- Endogenous Coalition Formation in Greenhouse Negotiations

- European Summer School in Resource and Environmental Economics - Economic Valuation Methods

- Climate Change Modelling and Policies II

- Auctions and Market Design: Theory, Evidence and Applications

58

KEY MITIGATION EVENTS (2004-2009)

- International Workshop on Integrated Assessment of Sustainable Development

- The Energy Challenge - Third World Conference on the Future of Science

- A New Environmental Accounting Framework Using Externality Data and Input-Output Tools for Policy Analysis

- Reducing Emissions From Deforestation And Forest Degradation - REDD

- Kyoto-Lombardia - Un modello del sistema energetico regionale

- Side-Event on “The True Cost of Climate Policy” Poznan Climate Change Conference, COP 14

- “Market-Based Redd: Carbon Markets, Price Signals, and Incentives for Reduced and Avoided Deforestation”

- Side-Event on “An Economic Assessment of REDD: Economic assessment of REDD potential in climate mitigation policies. Implications for international carbon market and energy technology innovation"

- Carbon Market and Flexible Mechanisms: Economic, Technical and Juridical Aspects - FEEM-Linklaters Workshop

- The 2009 International Energy Workshop – IEW

- European Summer School in Resource and Environmental Economics "Economics, Transport and Environment"

- 2009 International Energy Workshop (IEW)

126

KEY MITIGATION EVENTS(2010-2015)

- Politics and Economics of Second-Best Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: The Importance of Regulatory Credibility

- International Workshop on "Reconciling Domestic Energy Needs and Global Climate Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for China and India"

- Summer School on "International and European Law and Policy on Investment and Environment: the Energy Challenge"

- International workshop on "Modeling and Policy of CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere"

- International workshop on “Implementing Low Carbon Policies”

- International and European Law and Policy on Investment and Environment: the Energy Challenge - II Edition

- 2012 International Energy Workshop

- ICCG - Ca' Foscari International Lecture by Marianne Fay: "Inclusive Green Growth: The Pathway for Sustainable Development"

- FEEM-ICCG-CMCC Policy Session on "Climate and Energy Policies in the Mediterranean Basin" at the 5th World Congress of Environmental and Resources Economists

- ICCG International Lecture by Richard A. Houghton, Woods Hole Research Center: "What management of land can and cannot do to help control atmospheric CO2"

- International Energy Workshop - IEW2015

- ICCG Policy Session c/o EAERE Annual Conference

NATURAL DISASTERS
indicates the assessment of
risks and hazards due to
climate change, risk reduction,
and coping strategies
1

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS EVENTS (1992-1997)

- GWEN Workshop III

6

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS EVENTS (2004-2009)

- Workshop on the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Droughts

35

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS EVENTS (2010-2015)

- International Workshop on "Resilience - Harnessing Science for Better Disaster Management"

- International workshop on “Economics of Natural Disasters: Bridging Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Adaptation Efforts and Strategies”

- Belpasso International Summer School: Extremes: Natural Disasters in Changing Climate

- Policy Expert Workshop on "The Value of Knowing Better: Assessment of losses from natural hazards"

- Social Vulnerability Assessment of the Cologne Urban Area (Germany) to Heat Waves: Links to Ecosystem Services

- Evaluation of Long-Dated Investments under Uncertain Growth Trend, Volatility and Catastrophes

RDD&D
deals with the importance
and influence of
Research, Development,
Deployment and Diffusion
investments and
strategies for technological
innovation
11

KEY RDD&D EVENTS (1992-1997)

- Creation and Transfer of Knowledge: Institutions and Incentives

- Technology, Employment and Labour Markets

- Creation and Transfer of Knowledge

6

KEY RDD&D EVENTS (1998-2003)

- Trade and Competition in the WTO and Beyond

- Second International Workshop on Knowledge as an Economic Good

11

KEY RDD&D EVENTS (2004-2009)

- Modeling Technology Oriented RD&D Strategic Cooperation for Climate Change Mitigation: Methodological Issues and Alternative Policy Scenarios

30

KEY RDD&D EVENTS (2010-2015)

- Modelling uncertainty in climate change analysis: PLANETS Special Sessions at the 2010 International Energy Workshop

- International workshop on “RD&D Needs to Enhance the Role of Nuclear Energy in Meeting Climate and Energy Challenges”

- International workshop on “Innovation in Energy Technologies: What can we Learn from Patent Data”

- Understanding the strategic energy technology (SET) plan: does the EU have a climate/energy technology deployment strategy?

- Environmental Policy and Directed Technological Change: Evidence from the European Carbon Market

- How Do Climate Policies Affect the Pace and Direction of Technical Change?

- European Summer School on Uncertainty, Innovation and Climate Change




FEEM PUBLICATIONS ON CLIMATE CHANGE (1992-2015)


Publications are a key outlet for the dissemination of FEEM’s research output. FEEM has a broad range of publications addressed to both the academic and non- academic readerships:

• FEEM’s “Note di Lavoro-Working Paper Series”, a vehicle for disseminating research produced internally, but also a media to attract external papers on topics linked with FEEM’s specific areas of research

• Two editorial series: Edward Elgar Publishing (in English), FEEM Series on "Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development", and Il Mulino (in Italian), FEEM Series

• “Equilibri”, journal for sustainable development published in cooperation with il Mulino (in Italian), which is targeted to a broad audience of readers, with a focus on climate change, energy, green growth and sustainability in general.

• FEEM Press, an open-access, digital editorial series, which provides authoritative information in the areas of climate change and sustainable development, energy and economics. FEEM Press volumes are freely and permanently available on FEEM’s website.

• “Review of Environment, Energy and Economics - Re3”, an open-access e-journal for the dissemination of the work and research-based policy analysis of FEEM researchers and leading international scholars, covering the areas of the environment, energy and economics.

Throughout the 1992-2015 period, FEEM research has been published in top field journals including – but not limited to: Nature, Nature Climate Change and Science.

What follows represents FEEM’s publications on climate change in the 1992-2015 period, grouped by six topics: ADAPTATION, FINANCE, GOVERNANCE, MITIGATION, NATURAL DISASTERS AND RDD & D.


ADAPTATION
indicates all the activities
which intend to cope with and
reduce impacts from climate
change
3

KEY ADAPTATION PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- G. Pireddu, Chapter, Environment and Transport in Economic Modelling, Kluwer Academic

6

KEY ADAPTATION PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- C. Dosi and W. K. Easter, Chapter, Economic Studies on Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, Kluwer Academic

- C. Giupponi, M. Shechter, M. (eds.), Book, Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Socio-economic Perspectives of Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation, Edward Elgar Publishing

16

KEY ADAPTATION PUBLICATIONS (2004-2009)

- M. Berrittella, A. Bigano, R. Roson and R. S.J. Tol, A General Equilibrium Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on Tourism, Tourism Management 10/2006 Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp 913-924

- F. Bosello, R. Roson and R. S.J. Tol, Economy-Wide Estimates of the Implications of Climate Change: Human Health, Ecological Economics 06/2006 Vol. 58, Issue 3, pp 579–591

- A. Bigano, F. Bosello, R. Roson and R. S.J. Tol, Economy-Wide Estimates of the Implications of Climate Change: A Joint Analysis for Sea Level Rise and Tourism, Environmental and Resource Economics 2007 Vol. 37, pp 549-571

- A. Bigano, J. M. Hamilton and R. S.J. Tol, The Impact of Climate on Holiday Destination Choice, Climatic Change 2006 Vol. 76, pp 389-406

-A. Alberini, A. Chiabai and L. Muehlenbachs, Using Expert Judgment to Assess Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change: Evidence from a Conjoint Choice Survey, Global Environmental Change 05/2006 Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp 123-144

- A. Bigano, J. M. Hamilton and R. S.J. Tol, The Impact of Climate Change on Domestic and International Tourism: A Simulation Study, The Integrated Assessment Journal, Bridging Sciences & Policy, 2007, Vol.7, Issue 1, pp 25-49

55

KEY ADAPTATION PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- F. Bosello, C. Carraro and E. De Cian, Climate Policy and the Optimal Balance between Mitigation, Adaptation and Unavoided Damage, Climate Change Economics , 2010 Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp 71–92

- F. Bosello, R. Parrado and R. Rosa, The Economic and Environmental Effects of an EU Ban on Illegal Logging Imports. Insights from a CGE Assessment, Environment and Development Economics, 04/2013 Vol. 18, No. 2, pp 184-206

- F. Bosello, C. Carraro and E. De Cian, Adaptation Can Help Mitigation: An Integrated Approach to Post-2012 Climate Policy, Environment and Development Economics 06/2013 Vol. 18, No. 3, pp 270-290

- E. Massetti and R. Mendelsohn, Estimating Ricardian Models With Panel Data, Climate Change Economics, 11/2011 Vol. 2, Issue 4

- R.R. Palatnik and R. Roson, Climate change and agriculture in computable general equilibrium models: Alternative modeling strategies and data needs, Climatic Change, 06/2012, Vol. 112, Issue 3, pp 1085-1100

- F. Bosello, R.J. Nicholls, J. Richards, R. Roson, R.S.J. Tol, Economic impacts of climate change in Europe: sea-level rise, Climatic Change, 05/2012, Vol. 112, Issue 1, pp 63-81

- M. Catenacci and C. Giupponi, Integrated assessment of sea-level rise adaptation strategies using a Bayesian decision network approach, Environmental Modelling and Software, 06/2013 Vol. 44, pp 87–100

- C. Giupponi, Decision Support for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in Water Resources Management, Water Resources Management, 2014 28:4795-4808

- I. S. Wing, E. De Cian, Integrated assessment: Modelling agricultural adaptation, Nature Climate Change, 2014, 4, pp 535–536

- F. Eboli, R. Parrado, R. Roson, Climate Change Feedback on Economic Growth: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Mode, Environment and Development Economics 08/2010 Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp 515-533

FINANCE
points to those activities
which deal with the financing
of mitigation and adaptation
measures
4

KEY FINANCE PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- C. Carraro, M. Galeotti, Chapter, Environmental Aspects of Policymaking in a Federal State, Edward Elgar Publishing

- C. Carraro and A. Soubeyran, Chapter, Environmental Fiscal Reform and Unemployment, Kluwer Academic

- C. Carraro, M. Galeotti and M. Gallo, Environmental Taxation and Unemployment: Some Evidence on the "Double Dividend Hypothesis" in Europe, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 62, Issues 1–2, 10/1996, pp 141–181

- M. Grubb, I mercati d'aria, Equilibri, 3.1997

1

KEY FINANCE PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- M. Bussolo and D. Pinelli, Green Taxes: Environment, Employment and Growth, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 4.2001

14

KEY FINANCE PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- Bastianin, A. Favero and E. Massetti, Investments and Financial Flows Induced by Climate Mitigation Policies, Energy Economics 11/2012 Vol. 34, Supp. 1, pp S15-S28

- N. Ameli and D.M. Kammen, Clean energy deployment: Addressing financing cost, Environmental Research Letters, 2012

- A. Goria, Per un utilizzo virtuoso della finanza. Intervista con Andrea Beltratti, Equilibri 3.2012

GOVERNANCE
concerns all the stream of
work dealing with
institutional arrangements
and agreements
18

KEY GOVERNANCE PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- C. Carraro and D. Siniscalco, The International Dimension of Environmental Policy, European Economic Review 36, 1992, pp 379-387 North-Holland

- C. Carraro and D. Siniscalco, Strategies for the International Protection of the Environment, Journal of Public Economics, 10/1993 Vol. 52, Issue 3, pp 309–328

18

KEY GOVERNANCE PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- C. Carraro, Chapter, International Environmental Agreements on Climate Change, Kluwer Academic

- C. Carraro and C. Marchiori, Chapter, The Endogenous Formation of Economic Coalitions, Edward Elgar Publishing

- C. Carraro and C. Marchiori, Chapter, Game Practice and the Environment, Edward Elgar Publishing

- C. Carraro and D. Siniscalco, International Environmental Agreements: Incentives and Political Economy, European Economic Review, 05/1998 European Economic Review 42(3-5), pp 561-572

13

KEY GOVERNANCE PUBLICATIONS (2004-2009)

- C. Carraro, C. Marchiori and A. Sgobbi, Advances in Negotiation Theory: Bargaining, Coalitions and Fairness, Environment and Development Economics 04/2007 12(2), pp 329-49

- C. Carraro, C. Marchiori and A. Sgobbi, Applications of Negotiation Theory to Water Issues, Environment and Development Economics 2007 Vol. 12, pp 1–21

- C. Carraro, J. Eyckmans and M. Finus, Optimal Transfers and Participation Decisions in International Environmental Agreements, Review of International Organizations 2006 Vol. 1, No. 4, pp 379-396

- C. Carraro, C. Marchiori and S. Oreffice, Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties, Environmental and Resource Economics, 03/ 2009, Vol. 42, Issue 3, pp 411-425

75

KEY GOVERNANCE PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- K. Lessmann, U. Kornek, V. Bosetti, R. Dellink, J. Emmerling, J. Eyckmans, M. Nagashima, H.P. Weikard and Z. Yang, The Stability and Effectiveness of Climate Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Integrated Assessment Models, J Environmental and Resource Economics, 2015, pp 1-26

- R. Brau and C. Carraro, The design of voluntary agreements in oligopolistic markets, Journal of Regulatory Economics, 04/2011, Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp 111-142

- M. Heugues, International Environmental Cooperation: A New Eye on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions' Control, Annals of Operations Research, 09/2014, Vol. 220, Issue 1, pp 239-262

- C. Giupponi et al, Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries: Learning from Experiences in Africa, Water, 2013, 5(2), pp 798-818

- S. Currarini and M. Marini, Majority Rule and Coalitional Stability, Economics Bulletin, 2013, vol. 33, pp 1660-1668

- C. Carraro, M. Davide, V. Barbi and G. Marangoni, Science advancements, policy immobility: the two faces of climate (in)action, Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment, 2013, Vol. 3, pp 5-29

- P. Mariel, A. De Ayala, D. Hoyos and S. Abdullah., Selecting random parameters in discrete choice experiment for environmental valuation: A simulation experiment, Journal of Choice Modelling, 06/2013, Vol. 7, pp 44–57

- G. Marangoni, M. Tavoni et al, The distribution of the major economies’ effort in the Durban platform scenarios, Climate Change Economics, 11/2013, Vol. 04, Issue 04

- C.D. Pérez-Blanco, G. Delacámara and C.M. Gómez, Water charging and water saving in agriculture. Insights from a Revealed Preference Model in a Mediterranean Basin, Environmental Modelling and Software, 07/2015, Vol. 69, pp 90–100

- L. Drouet, V. Bosetti, M. Tavoni, Selection of climate policies under the uncertainties in the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Nature Climate Change 2015, 5, pp 937–940

- C. Carraro, O. Edenhofer, C. Flachsland, C. Kolstad, R. Stavins, R. Stowe, The IPCC at a crossroads: Opportunities for reform, Science 10/2015, Vol. 350 no. 6256 pp 34-35

MITIGATION
concerns all the activities
related to the reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions,
including their costs
13

KEY MITIGATION PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- C. Carraro and D. Siniscalco (eds.), The European carbon tax: an economic assessment, Kluwer Academic

- C. Carraro, C. Katsoulacos, Y. Xepapadeas, A. (eds.), Environmental policy and market structure, Kluwer Academic

36

KEY MITIGATION PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- F. Bosello, C. Carraro and M. Galeotti, The Double Dividend Issue: Modeling Strategies and Empirical Findings, Environment and Development Economics 2000 6, pp 9-45

- M. Galeotti and A. Lanza, Richer and Cleaner? A Study on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Developing Countries, Energy Policy 1999 27, pp 565-573

- C. Carraro and A. Goria, Integrating Climate Policies in the European Environment, Change, 2000 2, pp 121-126

- F. Bosello and C. Carraro, Recycling Energy Taxes. Impacts on a Disaggregated Labour Market, Energy Economics 2001 23, pp 569-594

- B. Buchner, C. Carraro and I. Cersosimo, On the Consequences of the U.S. Withdrawal from the Kyoto/Bonn Protocol, Climate Policy 2002 76, pp 1-20

- A. Markandya, A. Golub and E. Strukova, The Influence of Climate Change Considerations on Energy Policy: The Case of Russia, International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 2003 X, 1-15

43

KEY MITIGATION PUBLICATIONS (2004-2009)

- V. Bosetti, M. Galeotti and A. Lanza, How Consistent are Alternative Short-Term Climate Policies with Long-Term Goals?, Climate Policy

- V. Bosetti and L. Gilotte, Carbon Capture and Sequestration: How Much Does this Uncertain Option Affect Near-Term Policy Choices?, Climate Policy

- V. Bosetti and B. Buchner, Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess the Relative Efficiency of Different Climate Policy Portfolios, Ecological Economics

- R. Roson, Introducing Imperfect Competition in CGE Models: Technical Aspects and Implications, Journal of Computational Economics

- K. Ronneberger, M. Berrittella, F. Bosello and R.S.J. Tol, Klum@Gtap: Introducing Biophysical Aspects of Land-Use Decisions Into a General Equilibrium Model A Coupling Experiment, Environmental Modeling and Assessment

- M. Galeotti, M. Manera and A. Lanza, On the Robustness of Robustness Checks of the Environmental Kuznets Curve, Journal Environmental and Resource Economics

- D. Ellerman and B. Buchner, Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the Eu Ets Based on the 2005 Emissions Data, Environmental and Resource Economics

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and M. Galeotti, Stabilisation Targets, Technical Change and the Macroeconomic Costs of Climate Change Control, The Energy Journal

- B. Buchner, C. Carraro and A. D. Ellerman, The Allocation of European Union Allowances: Lessons, Unifying Themes and General Principles, Rev Environ Econ Policy

- F. Bosello, C. Giupponi and A. Povellato, A Review of Recent Studies on Cost Effectiveness of GHG Mitigation Measures in the European Agro-Forestry Sector, Environmental Science & Policy

- M. Tavoni, B. Sohngen, and V. Bosetti, Forestry and the Carbon Market Response to Stabilize Climate, Energy Policy

- V. Bosetti and M. Tavoni, Uncertain R&D, Backstop Technology and GHGs Stabilization, Energy Economics

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and E. Massetti, Banking Permits: Economic Efficiency and Distributional Effects, Journal of Policy Modeling

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro, A. Sgobbi and M. Tavoni, Delayed Action and Uncertain Targets. How Much Will Climate Policy Cost?, Climatic Change

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and M. Tavoni, Delayed Participation of Developing Countries to Climate Agreements: Should Action in the EU and US be Postponed?, Climatic Change

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and M.Tavoni, Climate Change Mitigation Strategies in Fast-Growing Countries: The Benefits of Early Action, Energy Economics

- G. Luderer, V. Bosetti, M. Jakob, J. Steckel, H. Waisman and O. Edenhofer, Towards a Better Understanding of Disparities in Scenarios of Decarbonization: Sectorally Explicit Results from the RECIPE Project, Energy Journal

- M. Galeotti and B. Buchner, Climate Policy and Economic Growth in Developing Countries, International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 2004 4, pp 109-138

- B. Buchner and C. Carraro, Emissions Trading Regimes and Incentives to Participate in International Climate Agreements, European Environment September/October 2004 Vol. 14, Issue 5, pp 276-289

- E. Castelnuovo and M. Galeotti, Learning By Doing vs Learning By Researching in a Model of Climate Change Policy Analysis, Ecological Economics 2005 pp 261-276

138

KEY MITIGATION PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and M. Tavoni, Alternative Paths toward a Low Carbon World, Environmental and Resources Economics

- C. Carraro and E. Massetti, Beyond Copenhagen: A Realistic Climate Policy in a Fragmented World, Climatic Change

- V. Bosetti and D. G. Victor, Politics and Economics of Second-Best Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: The Importance of Regulatory Credibility, The Energy Journal

- F. Bosello and F. Eboli, REDD in the Carbon Market: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Environmental Modeling & Assessment

- C. Carraro and E. Massetti, Energy and Climate Change in China, Environment and Development Economics

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro, E. De Cian, E. Massetti and M. Tavoni, Incentives and Stability of International Climate Coalitions: An Integrated Assessment, Energy Policy

- V. Bosetti and J. Frankel, Sustainable Cooperation in Global Climate Policy: Specific Formulas and Emission Targets to Build on Copenhagen and Cancun, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy

- S. Chakravarty and M. Tavoni, Energy Poverty Alleviation and Climate Change Mitigation: is There a Trade off? Energy Economics

- F. Bosello, L. Campagnolo, F. Eboli and R. Parrado, Energy from Waste: Generation Potential and Mitigation Opportunity, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies

- Y. Rubashkina, M. Galeotti and E. Verdolini, Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European Manufacturing Sectors, Energy Policy

- E. De Cian, S. Carrara et al, European-Led Climate Policy Versus Global Mitigation Action. Implications on Trade, Technology, and Energy, Climate Change Economics

- L. Drouet et al, Integrated Environmental Assessment of Future Energy Scenarios Based on Economic Equilibrium Models, Social Value of Materials

- B. Van Der Zwaan and M. Tavoni, Coal-based power generation with CCS versus nuclear energy: Two competitive base-load climate control options, Energy Procedia

- V. Bosetti , R. Lubowski, A. Golub and A. Markandya, Linking reduced deforestation and a global carbon market: Implications for clean energy technology and policy flexibility, Environment and Development Economics

- V. Bosetti and S.K. Rose, Reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: Issues for policy design and implementation, Environment and Development Economics/ Special

- E. De Cian, V. Bosetti and M. Tavoni, Technology innovation and diffusion in less than ideal climate policies. An assessment with the WITCH model, Climatic Change

- E. Massetti and M. Tavoni, A Developing Asia Emission Trading Scheme (Asia ETS), Energy Economics

- E. De Cian and M. Tavoni, Do technology externalities justify restrictions on emission permit trading?, Resource and Energy Economics

- M. Tavoni and R. Socolow, Modeling meets science and technology: An introduction to a special issue on negative emissions, Climatic Change

- S. Fuss, J. G. Canadell, G. P. Peters, M. Tavoni, R. M. Andrew, P. Ciais, R. B. Jackson, C.s D. Jones, F. Kraxner, N. Nakicenovic, C. Le Quéré, M. R. Raupach, A. Sharifi, P. Smith, Y. Yamagata, Betting on negative emissions, Nature Climate Change

- H. McJeon, J. Edmonds, N. Bauer, L. Clarke, B. Fisher, B. P Flannery, J. Hilaire, V. Krey, G. Marangoni, R. Mi, K. Riahi, H. Rogner, M. Tavoni, Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas, Nature

- M. Tavoni, E. Kriegler, K. Riahi, D. P. van Vuuren, T. Aboumahboub, A. Bowen, K. Calvin, E. Campiglio, T. Kober, J. Jewell, G. Luderer, G. Marangoni, D. McCollum, M. van Sluisveld, A. Zimmer, B. van der Zwaan, Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models, Nature Climate Change

NATURAL DISASTERS
indicates the assessment of
risks and hazards due to
climate change, risk reduction,
and coping strategies
3

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- A. Markandya, Chapter, Trade, Innovation, Environment (Ed.) C. Carraro, Kluwer Academic

- G. Bologna, Il fattore H, Equilibri 3.1997

4

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- G. Bologna, Desertificazione, Equilibri 1.1998

- A. Markandya, A. Hunt And P. Mason, Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach, FEEM Nota di Lavoro 93.2000

3

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PUBLICATIONS (2004-2009)

- A. Bigano, A. Goria, J. Hamilton and R. S.J. Tol, Chapter, The Economics of Tourism and Sustainable Development, Edward Elgar Publishing

- A. Calzadilla, F. Pauli and R. Roson, Climate Change and Extreme Events: An Assessment of Economic Implications, International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics 2007 Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 5–28

35

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- L. Ceccato, V. Giannini and C. Giupponi, A Participatory Approach to Assess the Effectiveness of Responses to Cope with Flood Risk, Environmental Science and Policy, 2011 Vol. 14, N. 8 pp 1163-1174

- F. Bosello and E. De Cian, Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Disasters. A Review of Modeling Practices, Energy Economics 11/2014, Vol. 46, pp 593–605

- L. Carrera, G. Standardi, F. Bosello, and J. Mysiak, Assessing Direct and Indirect Economic Impacts of a Flood Event Through the Integration of Spatial and Computable General Equilibrium Modelling, Environmental Modelling & Software 01/2015 Vol. 63, pp 109-122

- C. D. Pérez Blanco, C. M. Gómez Gómez, Drought Management Plans and Water Availability in Agriculture. A Risk Assessment Model for a Southern European Basin, Weather and Climate Extremes 08/2014 Vol. 4, pp 11-18

- K. Schelfaut, B. Pannemans, I. van der Craats, J. Krywkow, J. Mysiak, J. Cools, Bringing flood resilience into practice: The FREEMAN project, Environmental Science & Policy, 11/2011, Vol. 14, Issue 7, pp 825–833

- C. Giupponi, S. Giove, V. Giannini, A dynamic assessment tool for exploring and communicating vulnerability to floods and climate change, Environmental Modelling and Software, 06/2013 Vol. 44, pp 136–147

- M. P. Hare, C. van Bers, P. van der Keur, H. J. Henriksen, J. Luther, C. Kuhlicke, F. Jaspers, C. Terwisscha van Scheltinga, J. Mysiak, E. Calliari, K. Warner, H. Daniel, J. Coppola and P. F. McGrath, CATALYST – a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and adaptation, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 2014, Vol. 14, pp 2157-2163,

- M.D.A. Rounsevell, A. Arneth, P. Alexander, D.G. Brown, N. De Noblet-Ducoudre N, E. Ellis, J. Finnigan, K. Galvin, N. Grigg, I. Harman, J. Lennox, N. Magliocca, D. Parker, B.C. O'Neill, P.H. Verburg and O. Young, Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system, Earth System Dynamics, 2014 Vol. 5, pp 117-137

- J. Mysiak, C. Dionisio Pérez-Blanco, Partnerships for affordable and equitable disaster insurance, Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences 2015 3, pp 4797–4832

RDD&D
deals with the importance
and influence of
Research, Development,
Deployment and Diffusion
investments and
strategies for technological
innovation
13

KEY RDD&D PUBLICATIONS (1992-1997)

- C. Carraro and D. Siniscalco, Environmental Policy Reconsidered: the Role of Technological Innovation, European Economic Review, 04/1994 Vol. 38, Issues 3–4, pp 545-554

- C. Dosi and M. Moretto, Pollution Accumulation and Firm Incentives to Promote Irreversible Technological Change Under Uncertain Private Benefits, Environmental and Resource Economics, 1997 10, pp 285-300

4

KEY RDD&D PUBLICATIONS (1998-2003)

- P. Buonanno, C. Carraro and M. Galeotti, Endogenous Induced Technical Change and the Costs of Kyoto, Resource and Energy Economics 2002 524, 11-35

- E. Castelnuovo, M. Moretto and S. Vergalli, Global Warming, Uncertainty and Endogenous Technical Change: Implications for Kyoto, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 2003 8, pp 291-301

10

KEY RDD&D PUBLICATIONS (2004-2009)

- V. Bosetti and L. Drouet, Accounting for Uncertainty Affecting Technical Change in an Economic-Climate Model, Energy Policy 11/2007 Vol. 35, Issue 11, pp 5327-5336

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro and M. Galeotti, The Dynamics of Carbon and Energy Intensity in a Model of Endogenous Technical Change, The Energy Journal, Endogenous Technological Change and the Economics of Atmospheric Stabilisation Special Issue 2006 pp 93-107

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro, E. Massetti and M. Tavoni, International Energy R&D Spillovers and the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Stabilization, Energy Economics 11/2008 Vol. 30, No. 6, pp 2912-2929

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro, E. Massetti and M. Tavoni, Optimal Energy Investment and R&D Strategies to Stabilise Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Concentrations, Resource and Energy Economics 05/2009 Vol. 31, No. 2, pp 123-137

- C. Carraro, E. Massetti and L. Nicita, How Does Climate Policy Affect Technical Change? An Analysis of the Direction and Pace of Technical Progress in a Climate-Economy Model, The Energy Journal, Special Issue. Climate Change Policies After 2012 10/2009 Special Issue 2, pp 7-38

- B. Buchner, C. Carraro, I. Cersosimo and C. Marchiori, Back to Kyoto? US Participation and the Linkage between R&D and Climate Cooperation, Coupling Climate and Economic Dynamics 2005 Vol. 22, pp 173-204

47

KEY RDD&D PUBLICATIONS (2010-2015)

- V. Bosetti, C. Carraro, R.Duval and M. Tavoni, What Should We Expect from Innovation? A Model-Based Assessment of the Environmental and Mitigation Cost Implications of Climate-Related R&D, Energy Economics

- E. Lanzi, E. Verdolini and I. Haščič, Efficiency Improving Fossil Fuel Technologies for Electricity Generation: Data Selection and Trends, Energy Policy

- E. Massetti and E. Claire Ricci, Super-Grids and Concentrated Solar Power: A Scenario Analysis with the WITCH Model, Energy Economics

- G. Fiorese, M. Catenacci, E. Verdolini and V. Bosetti, Advanced Biofuels: Future Perspectives from an Expert Elicitation Survey, Energy Policy

- M. Catenacci, E. Verdolini, V. Bosetti, G. Fiorese and N. Ameli, Going Electric: Expert Survey on the Future of Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles, Energy Policy

- C. Carraro, E. De Cian and M. Tavoni, Human Capital, Innovation, and Climate Policy: An Integrated Assessment, Environmental Modeling & Assessment

- E. De Cian, S. Carrara and M. Tavoni, Innovation Benefits from Nuclear Phase-out: Can they Compensate the Costs?, Climatic Change

- V. Bosetti and T. Longden, Light Duty Vehicle Transportation and Global Climate Policy: The Importance of Electric Drive Vehicles, Energy Policy

- V. Bosetti, C. Cattaneo and E. Verdolini, Migration, Cultural Diversity and Innovation: A European Perspective, Journal of International Economics

- E. De Cian and R. Parrado, Technology Spillovers Embodied in International Trade: Intertemporal, regional and sectoral effects in a global CGE, Energy Economics

- E. De Cian, M. Schymura, E. Verdolini and S. Voigt, Energy Intensity Developments in 40 Major Economies: Structural Change or Technology Improvement?, Energy Economics

- G. Marangoni and M. Tavoni, The Clean Energy R&D Strategy for 2°C, Climate Change Economics

- L. Diaz Anadon, G. Nemet and E. Verdolini, The Future Costs of Nuclear Power Using Multiple Expert Elicitations: Effects of RD&D and Elicitation Design, Environmental Research Letters

- G. Fiorese, M. Catenacci, V. Bosetti, E. Verdolini, The Power of Biomass: Experts Disclose the Potential for Success of Bioenergy Technologies, Energy Policy

- E. Verdolini, L. Diaz Anadon, J. Lu, G. F. Nemet, The Effects of Expert Selection, Elicitation Design, and R&D Assumptions on Experts’ Estimates of the Future Costs of Photovoltaics, Energy Policy

- E. Verdolini and M. Galeotti, At home and abroad: an empirical analysis of innovation and diffusion in energy technologies, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management

- L. Diaz Anadon, V. Bosetti, M. Bunn, M. Catenacci and A. Lee, Expert Judgments about RD&D and the Future of Nuclear Energy, Environmental Science & Technology

- G. Marangoni et al, A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2°C Climate Change Control Target, Climate Change Economics

- E. De Cian, C. Carraro, Factor-Augmenting Technical Change: An Empirical Assessment, Environmental Modeling & Assessment, 02/2013 Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp 13-26




FEEM PROJECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE (1992-2015)


FEEM conducts research on a wide range of economic, environmental, and energy issues. Research programmes and related activities follow the strategic guidelines stated in FEEM’s mission. Ongoing research is thus rigorous, fact-based, interdisciplinary, and international in terms of the composition of research teams and topics addressed. FEEM’s research staff includes research fellows, experienced international research leaders with key responsibility in the design and implementation of projects, senior and junior residential researchers working in the offices of Milan, Venice and Viggiano, and research associates, typically affiliated to a university or to other research institutions and involved on specific projects. FEEM carries out both in-house research and a relevant number of projects financed by third parties, and mainly by the European Commission. What follows represents FEEM’s projects on climate change in the 1992-2015 period, grouped by six topics: ADAPTATION, FINANCE, GOVERNANCE, MITIGATION, NATURAL DISASTERS AND RDD & D.



ADAPTATION
indicates all the activities
which intend to cope with and
reduce impacts from climate
change
6

KEY ADAPTATION PROJECTS (1998-2003)

− ACACIA - A Concerted Action towards a comprehensive Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment for the European Union

− cCASHh - Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies for Human Health in Europe

23

KEY ADAPTATION PROJECTS (2004-2009)

− CIRCE - Climate Change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment

− ENSEMBLES - ENSEMBLE-based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts

− PESETA - Projections of Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Sectors of Europe Based on Bottom-up Analysis

22

KEY ADAPTATION PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− Global-IQ - Impacts Quantification of global changes

FINANCE
points to those activities
which deal with the financing
of mitigation and adaptation
measures
5

KEY FINANCE PROJECTS (2004-2009)

− FINCLIM - The future finance of climate change

− LESSONS - Lessons learnt from the national allocation of allowances

4

KEY FINANCE PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− FINCLIM - The future finance of climate change

GOVERNANCE
concerns all the stream of
work dealing with
institutional arrangements
and agreements
11

KEY GOVERNANCE PROJECTS (1992-1997)

− Strategies for European leadership in international climate and sustainability regimes

9

KEY GOVERNANCE PROJECTS (1998-2003)

− ANSEA - Towards an Analytical Strategic Environmental Assessment methodology

− CLIMNEG - Adopting and distributing climate targets and policies: an integrated assessment of European interests and strategies in the climate negotiation process beyond Kyoto

12

KEY GOVERNANCE PROJECTS (2004-2009)

− CMCC - Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change

− IEA&CTN - International Environmental Agreements & CTN

10

KEY GOVERNANCE PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− EUDialogue - European Dialogue on the Energy & Climate Challenge

MITIGATION
concerns all the activities
related to the reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions,
including their costs
9

KEY MITIGATION PROJECTS (1992-1997)

− Effects of energy-environment policies

18

KEY MITIGATION PROJECTS (1998-2003)

− CATEP - Concerted Action for Tradable Emission Permits

− EFIEA - European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment

38

KEY MITIGATION PROJECTS (2004-2009)

− ClimateCost - Full Costs of Climate Change

− PLANETS - Probabilistic Long-Term Assessment of New Energy Technology Scenarios

− TOCSIN - Technology-Oriented Cooperation and Strategies in India and China: Reinforcing the EU dialogue with Developing Countries on Climate Change Mitigation

− PASHMINA - Paradigm Shifts Modelling and Innovative Approaches

44

KEY MITIGATION PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− ADVANCE - Advanced Model Development and Validation for Improved Analysis of Costs and Impacts of Mitigation Policies

− AMPERE - Assessment of Climate Change Mitigation Pathways and Evaluation of the Robustness of Mitigation Cost Estimates

− ENTRACTE - Economic iNsTRuments to Achieve Climate Targets in Europe

− LIMITS - Low climate IMpact scenarios and the Implications of required Tight emission control Strategies

− PATHWAYS - Exploring transition pathways to sustainable, low carbon societies

NATURAL DISASTERS
indicates the assessment of
risks and hazards due to
climate change, risk reduction,
and coping strategies
1

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PROJECTS (1992-1997)

− Environmental Risk

1

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PROJECTS (1998-2003)

− Environmental Risk

7

KEY NATURAL DISASTERS PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− CATALYST- Capacity Development for Hazard Risk reduction and Adaptation

− ENHANCE - Enhancing risk management partnerships for catastrophic natural disasters in Europe

RDD&D
deals with the importance
and influence of
Research, Development,
Deployment and Diffusion
investments and
strategies for technological
innovation
1

KEY RDD&D PROJECTS (1992-1997)

− MEMA - Mediterranean Energy Market Appraisal - Trends and prospects for new technologies

5

KEY RDD&D PROJECTS (1998-2003)

− NEMESIS/ETC - New Econometric Model for Environmental Strategies. Implementation for Sustainable Development / Endogenous Technical Change

4

KEY RDD&D PROJECTS (2004-2009)

− TechChange - Modelling Technical Change for Climate Policy Analysis

15

KEY RDD&D PROJECTS (2010-2015)

− ClimTech - Diffusion of Climate-Friendly Technologies. The Role of Intellectual Property Rights, Human Capital and Environmental Policy

− ICARUS - Innovation for Climate chAnge mitigation: a study of energy R&d, its Uncertain effectiveness and Spillovers




EVENTS PROJECTS PUBLICATIONS


This is a representation of FEEM’s growing contribution to the climate change debate in terms of events, projects and publications from 1992 to 2015, grouped by six topics: ADAPTATION, FINANCE, GOVERNANCE, MITIGATION, NATURAL DISASTERS AND RDD & D, and four time periods: 1992-1997, 1998-2003, 2004-2009, 2010-2015.


ADAPTATION
indicates all the activities
which intend to cope with and
reduce impacts from climate
change
FINANCE
points to those activities
which deal with the financing
of mitigation and adaptation
measures
GOVERNANCE
concerns all the stream of
work dealing with
institutional arrangements
and agreements
MITIGATION
concerns all the activities
related to the reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions,
including their costs
NATURAL DISASTERS
indicates the assessment of
risks and hazards due to
climate change, risk reduction,
and coping strategies
RDD&D
deals with the importance
and influence of
Research, Development,
Deployment and Diffusion
investments and
strategies for technological
innovation